You can make sure that you have implemented the basic security provisions only when it have capability to control who enters and when.  Access Control system usually represents point monitoring and access control because apart from being an electronic gate keeper, those systems allow monitoring alarms.  By being an electronic gate keeper the system allows free flow of authorized persons and prohibit unwanted entry of visitors. Access Control systems representing Point Monitoring and Access Control is so defined because card readers on door are meant to be controlled by some small panel-based alarm systems, typically designed for larger PC based monitoring. The heart of such  is a unit and we call it a controller. Even though it is in a metal box and mounted on a wall, each controllers act as a computer and performs their work independently which means independent to any other that are networked to it. You can add capacity to your hardware by just replacing the old controlled with the new one when your need exceeds the old one. Even though the PC class server runs the master software, each controller uses its own operating system software and the basic fact is that we humans interface with this powerful network through PC operator terminals.

Basic functionalities of the access control system are alarm monitoring and access control, when it is about alarm monitoring, using wire (wireless option is also available) any type of detector or contact is connected. It sends a signal to the controller and the controller’s output causes a separate dailer to call the central station just like a small alarm system does, when an alarm occurs on a detector. And when it is about access control, lock power supplies and reader control boards are used.

In simple terms, access control systems are just meant to protect an organization of any sizes and it takes form of door access, card access, and fingerprint access.

Door Access Control Systems

Access control systems can range from electronic keypads which is meant to secure a single door, to multiple buildings with large networked systems and thereby no need to replace old lost keys or wonder who has access to which area. We see people entering through the front door, entering a parking garage, a server and any other sensitive area, and access control systems are designed to keep out those who are not allowed to make an entry in any sensitive area. When it is about “sensitive area”, the first word comes in mind is “door” and there lies the important of door access control system. There are some basic ingredients to be considered before designing ‘a door access control system’, there should be a way for authorized users to identify themselves and to unlock the door from secure side. Next you should have a locking device to secure the door and of course you need a controller to manage the interaction between security devices. At last but not the least you have to consider specific requirements of the system.

When it is about how to secure the door, their comes the role of magnetic locks, electric strikes, electric dead bolts, magnetic shear locks and electrified lock sets. In magnetic locks, electromagnet is attached to the door frame and armature plate is attached to the door. Armature plate which is holding the door shut is attracted by the current passing through the electromagnet. Electric strike usually represents a gradient surface to the locking latch which allows the door to close.

Door access control system consist of egress devices like push-to-exit buttons; as the name implies depressing the button releases the door. Pressing the ‘push bar’ releases the latch and the door opens. ‘Emergency exits’ comes with two faces, one in break-glass model and the other in pull down handle. And consist of motion sensors function to detect a person or vehicle approaching an exit and unlock the door.

Door access system consist of entry devices like stand-alone locks which means implements all-in-one access control for a single door and that is powered with replaceable internal batteries. Keypad, proximity card etc. can be used for unlocking purpose. Next comes the proximity reader, then keyswitches which offers an electronic auditing through network while continuing usage of physical key to activate the lock. Then comes the keypad and finally biometric systems that rely on physical characteristics.

Card Access Control System

In card access system, the card’s information is sent to the control panel when a credential such proximity card is presented to the card reader. In the next phase the software compares the information to a control list and depending on the result obtained from the comparison in the third phase it records the request to an event log.  If the access is granted, the access is recorded as well as the door opened for a predefined time. And if the access is denied, the attempted access is recorded as well as the door remains unlocked. Card Access Control System supports, if there comes an issue to track employee attendance and movements within a facility, or if unauthorized access has been attempted, reports and building maps can be generated. That all about the working of card access control system.

Finger print access control system

Fingerprint identification, is the process of comparing questioned and known friction skin ridge impressions from fingers to determine if the impressions are from the same finger. The flexibility of friction ridge skin means that no two fingerprints are ever exactly alike (never identical in every detail), even two impressions recorded immediately after each other.

Fingerprint identification (also referred to as individualization) occurs when an expert determines that two friction ridge impressions originated from the same finger to the exclusion of all others. Compared with other methods of identification, such as a key, access card, numerical code or a password, the fingerprint is very secure. You cannot lose or forget it, and it cannot be stolen. It is also extremely practical, because you do not need to carry anything with you. Your pockets can be empty, there is no need to try and find anything at the bottom of your bag, and you can forget those big bundles of keys. You can also save significant sums in system management costs. In extensive systems, such as access control in factories or offices or visitor identification at sports clubs, there is no need for cards or keys that need to be distributed, collected back again, or removed from the register due to lost cards or keys. For example, when using fingerprint identification, visitors can be granted access for even just a single day.

If the fingerprint matches after the comparison the door remains open for a particular defined time period or else it remains locked, that all the basic theory behind the finger print access control.

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